The Workshop on LED Manufacturing for Lighting & Displays was held in Berlin, Germany on September 10-11, 2007. To support the widespread adoption of LEDs
in general lighting applications, the LED industry must be able to generate revenues and profits to support the R&D required to improve LED performance and reduce costs. Significant advances in performance will be needed to realize these expectations, as follows
• Output of a single white LED to exceed 200 lumens
• Radiant conversion efficiency to exceed 150 lm/W
• Luminance greater than 50 Mcd/m2
• Lifetime greater than 50,000 hours
• Integration into large-area panels
• Integration with driving electronics
• Resistance to harsh weather conditions
The synthesis of LED materials is well-advanced and has already produced LED chips with near 100% quantum efficiency. Further improvements in performance must come from innovations in colour quality, and thermal and optical performance. For colour quality, areas such as phosphors, down converters, and color rendering are all important.
Lifetime, packaging materials and processes and thermal management all require further innovation, and the same applies to reflector designs, optics, and designs for 3-D imaging, beam steering and adaptive optics.