awarded at the end of the symposium the best presentations, paper, lecture, and
The winners received the awards from Audi’s Michael Hamm.
Investigation of Pedestrian Behavior to 3 Encounter Scenarios with AV
(Tino Singer, TU Darmstadt L-Lab)
The Laboratory of Lighting Technology of the TUD conducted a study consisting of an encounter situation between an AV and a pedestrian in a car park. The tested subjects assumed the role of a pedestrian and were set in a car park scene by using a virtual reality headset.
The AV was equipped with an additional signaling device consisting of three displays in the front of the car. In total nine signals and variations were tested in three different encounter scenarios. The moving behavior of the subjects was recorded, and decision times determined.
The study investigated the three different encounter scenarios in a car park use case. The moving behaviour of the subjects differed in every scenario. In the parking and passing scenarios, the subjects seemed to rely on vehicle dynamics. In the passing scenario, one group of subjects started to cross the road early and another group started the crossing in the deceleration phase of the AV. In this scenario subjects started walking to the destination 0.3 s earlier, when additional signals showed the intention of the vehicle.
When subjects could not directly rely on vehicle dynamics, as in the deparking scenario, additional signals attracted attention. Subjective evaluations show that scenes with symbols provide a better recognition of the intention of the AV and a better safety feeling. Furthermore, uniquely identifiable symbols got top ratings. In future research the investigated scenarios can be extended by adding additional road users. The Influence of other manual driven vehicles, multiple number of signaling interfaces or other pedestrians in a scenario must be investigated.
The best lecture
Digital OLED for taillighting from Audi
Overcoming the biggest obstacles like reliability and cost, OLEDs are ready for a larger roll out. Combining their properties with a high number of segments on each OLED element automotive exterior displays can be created within a tail lamp. The usage of those digital OLEDs will lead the way to premium Car2X communication. Audi opens up revolutionary new approaches in combining highly attractive design with complete new functionality and versatility: Digital OLEDs will lead to the most efficient and flexible light application for Car2X communication and personalization in rear combination lighting.
The uniformity combined with the ability to have a very sharp contrast ratio between different active regions in one OLED panel within very small distances, can be achieved within one OLED. More than 50 segments per OLED tile are opening up more or less an infinite number of combinations of different segment states. Having those installed in taillight applications it is possible to change the shape and appearance of the taillight signature by simple digital information. Hence, the OLED light source enables the personalisation of the tail light design. Therefore, it is not needed to change the hardware of a rear combination lamp; plenty of designs can be covered due to specific OLED and OLED-segment design.
Each segment can be designed individually.
Hence, significantly different segment shapes and sizes within one OLED panel
are possible. Thus, precise patterns can be directly created by the segment
shape instead of using a multitude of tiny OLED segments requiring complex
driver electronics and suffering from edge aliasing effects. In addition, high
luminance values of ≥ 2.000cd/m² at deep red colour coordinates are already
possible, outperforming display based approaches in this application, by far.
By following this approach, it is also possible to develop one OLED module that can be used in many different cars while still being able to provide an individual design of every taillight signature. This is opening up a huge potential to initiate a dramatic cost down process for OLED applications also in A- and B-segmented cars . Next to design driven modifications of the taillight signature, it is now also possible to take this highly segmented taillight to display further information in the rear of a car, e.g. for following traffic or pedestrians.
In conclusion, OLED lighting can be applied in automotive without any risk. New functions have already been implemented by segmentation which can only be applied meaningful by OLEDs and no other light source. It enables personalization of tail light designs andcCar-2-X communication capabilities, making the digitalization of cars visible to the outside world.
Visibility Improvement Using Guide Function of Turn Signal Lamp
(Hye-Jin Han, SL Corporation)
Many traffic accidents occur at road junctions, some of them because other drivers or pedestrians can’t see or recognise the intended direction change of the vehicle.
SL, in cooperation with Yeungnam University, have developed a turn signal guide light to improve visibility of the turn signal. The experimental results showed better identification time when both direction-indicator lamps and the new turn signal guide lights versus conventional direction-indicator lamps alone.
A guide function of turn signal lamp was developed to project a marking pattern on the road to indicate the turning direction of the vehicle. Han and her team evaluated the recognition time and gaze points in three different situations to find out the effect of the guide function on the judgment of turning direction. They investigated the visibility and glare level of the guide function of the turn signal lamps using the prototype devices.
14 graduate students and 4 faculty members of Yeungnam University participated in the experiment. The team measured the time taken to recognise the direction of turning and observed the gaze points of a pedestrian positioned at a right front distant point from the right-side signal indicator and of a following driver position at a right rear distant point. The result from the T-junction road showed that the turn signal lamp with guide function significantly reduced the detection time of the turning direction. Compared with the turn signal only condition, average response time to the turn signal with guide lamp significantly decreased.
Another representative situation to evaluate the visibility of the turning signal is a lane change of a preceding vehicle. The comparison between each condition show that the guide lamps were helpful to recognise the direction of lane change. The difference was significant only at the right side.
For the evaluation of the glare effect, there was no difference in the discomfort glare score when the guide lamp was used and its directional angle was kept below 15°, compared to the case where only the conventional turn signal lamp was used. When we compared the total glare from the two conditions on the dry and wet surface, the results were almost the same.
of this study show that the guide function of turn signal lamp is effective to
improve the visibility and it could reduce vehicle accidents and increase