Starting this past week—7 February—all new cars and light vans sold in Europe and other countries applying UN Regulation 48 must be equipped with automatic daytime running lights. Automatic headlamps aren't acceptable; the DRLs must be functionally dedicated and conform to UN R87. The European Commission says DRLs increase road safety by increasing vehicle conspicuity. Research has shown that DRLs are likely to reduce multiple-vehicle crashes and fatalities by up to 6% once all vehicles are equipped. DRLs are likely to result in a small increase in fuel consumption and CO 2 emissions of around 0.5%, but this is expected to be lower when LEDs are used in place of filament light sources. The mandate will be extended to heavy vehicles—trucks, lorries and coaches—in August 2012.