Special to DVN by Geoff Draper – GTB President
The GTB working rhythm consists of two plenary sessions per year in May and November and two intermediate working group sessions in February and July. This intermediate session, held at the Den Haag Central Mercure Hotel on 17–21 February, was attended by 35 experts.
The programme for
the week was as follows:
– 17 February:
Technical Steering Committee
Forum: “Global NCAP for Adaptive Lighting Systems”
GTB Vehicle Level Laboratory Test Procedure Task Force
GTB Task Force ADAS Sensors
– 19 February:
GTB WG Installation
GTB WG Safety and Visual Performance (GTB Scientific Group)
– 20 February:
GTB WG Front Lighting
GTB WG Signal Lighting & Focus Group ADS Lighting
– 21 February:
GTB WG Light Sources
Forum: “Global NCAP for Adaptive Lighting Systems” (Moderator: Geoff Draper)
The GTB Forum has become an annual event to select a significant topic to be discussed in depth over a period of five hours and it normally involves specially invited experts to present their activities and viewpoints, followed by an active discussion.
This year the subject of “Global NCAP for Adaptive Lighting Systems” was chosen because of growing interest in extending the work carried out by CIE TC4-45 to develop a laboratory method of assessment of headlamp performance. The work of TC4-45 resulted in the publication of the CIE Report CIE 188:2010 and Standard CIE S-021-2011, but it did not include a performance rating system and it did not take account of adaptive systems.
At the 2019 ISAL symposium in Darmstadt there were references to the imminent launch of a China NCAP assessment for vehicle lighting and to the initiatives in the USA.
The Forum consisted of five presentations:
1. Launch of a Lighting Assessment for C-NCAP
Zhao Bin, Deputy General Manager of CATARC Europe Testing and Certification
Zhao Bin explained that CATARC had been commissioned by the Chinese Government to develop a draft lighting assessment protocol for C-NCAP and has based the procedure on the CIE Standard S-021-2011. Some changes to the detail of the CIE Standard have been introduced to take account of the geometry of the Chinese roads, and a rating system has been introduced. No detailed assessment of the performance of ADB has been included but additional points in the rating system are attributed to the installation of ADB. The C-NCAP protocol was introduced in January 2020 and is now in an assessment phase with formal launch expected in 2021.
2. Development of Lighting Assessment Protocols in the USA
Michael Larsen, Technical Fellow – Lighting, General Motors
Mike Larsen provided a very comprehensive overview of the various assessment procedures of the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) and Consumer Reports and compared their testing methodology and results. The main issue relates to the question of whether the vehicle should be assessed in “as delivered” condition where the headlamp aim becomes a variable factor, or whether the headlamps should be aimed correctly prior to conducting the performance evaluation.
With regard to an NCAP protocol for vehicle lighting, NHTSA has been working on a proposal that is not finalised and, in response, SAE has a task force that has proposed an alternative approach.
A further factor concerning the approach to headlamp performance testing relates to the NHTSA Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) for ADB with its performance assessment mainly concerning glare measurements carried outside on a test track representing a series of road geometries. Currently NHTSA are working on a revision of the NPRM and industry is awaiting its publication.
3. Vehicle – Based Laboratory Testing
Choi Hang Kyu, Principal Research Engineer, Mobis Korea
In July 2019, Choi Hang Kyu presented his work to the GTB taskforce on Vehicle Level Laboratory-based Test Procedure (VLLTP). He is developing a procedure for the photometric performance assessment of a complete lighting system installed on a vehicle, using the recently constructed light tunnel—250 m long and 30 m wide—at the Mobis proving grounds. In addition to its ability to fully assess the beam distribution of the complete vehicle lighting system, the tunnel also has an LED based screen where video of actual road geometries and opposing vehicle scenarios can be presented to vehicles installed with ADB systems to assess their response and measure the glare to the oncoming driver. Choi Hang Kyu presented his latest research to refine the glare assessment method and he is actively contributing to the work of the VLLTP taskforce.
4. History of GTB Involvement in EuroNCAP
Rainer Neumann, VP of Global Technology, Varroc Lighting Systems and GTB WG-SVP Chair.
Rainer Neumann provided an overview of the previous GTB EuroNCAP taskforce that was launched in July 2003 following the decision of EuroNCAP to study the feasibility of including a protocol to rate vehicle lighting. The GTB taskforce was invited to join the EuroNCAP subgroup and a draft mandate to regularly report progress on the development of a lighting assessment protocol was agreed.
The GTB Taskforce held 21 meetings held between August
2003 and October 2005 including 3 validation test events (at Renault, Hella and
IDIADA) and Geoff Draper (GTB EuroNCAP T/F Chair) participated in 17 meetings
of the EuroNCAP sub-committee and the Technical Committee between September
2003 and September 2005. In January 2005, The EuroNCAP Technical Committee
decided not to continue unless a clear justification from accident causation
studies could be provided but GTB decided to continue to finalise its proposal.
In 2005 GTB decided to move its activity into CIE TC-4-45 to produce a CIE Standard. In total, 17 meetings of the Joint GTB/CIE TC4-45 were held from December 2005 to September 2010 including two validation events (at Koito Leuven and Fiat Balocco). In total 71 Experts contributed and the CIE report 188:2010 and CIE S-021 Standard were published in 2010 and 2011 respectively. The result was the internationally recognised CIE Standard but there was no attempt to define a rating system and the procedure does not cover adaptive systems.
In 2019, under the chairmanship of Gert Langhammer, CIE TC4-45 attempted to extend the procedure to include adaptive systems but due to lack of interest from industry it was not possible to make progress and CIE decided to close TC4-45 in June 2019.
The discussion at ISAL2019 with regard to renewed interest in NCAP protocols for headlighting, and particular ADB, induced Prof. Khanh of Darmstadt University to convene a group of 27 interested experts to meet with the intention of developing a proposal to rate ADB systems. At a meeting on 30 January a proposal was drafted. The outcome was presented in the following presentation from Gert Langhammer.
5. Including ADB Functionality into the CIE-TC4-45 Assessment Procedure
Gert Langhammer, International Legislation Affairs, Automotive Lighting – Marelli
Gert Langhammer provided a detailed summary of the development of the proposal to include ADB functionality into the CIE-TC4-45 assessment procedure. This work, mainly carried out by Automotive Lighting-Marelli and Audi, was initially presented by Gert Langhammer at ISAL 2019. ADB systems were assessed according to the extended CIE procedure and a rating system was developed. The outcome of the work was then presented to the 27 experts and accepted at the meeting on 30 January in Darmstadt.
Conclusion of the Forum “Global NCAP for Adaptive Lighting Systems”
Following a Q&A session and discussion of the outcomes of the presentations, it was decided to transfer the draft proposal, developed by the “Darmstadt Group” and presented by Gert Langhammer, into a GTB taskforce. The possibility to re-open CIE TC4-45 was considered but it was concluded that it would be preferable to use the GTB umbrella to quickly finalise the “Darmstadt Proposal” and to publish it freely on the GTB website as a GTB Recommended Practice. This GTB document would be publicly available to anyone by accessing the GTB website and downloading the proposal free of charge, in order to make it widely available to the global lighting family. The possibility of also presenting the draft protocol to GRE will be considered at the GTB meeting in May 2020.
A proposal to incorporate the NCAP Task force into the GTB SVP working Group, chaired by Rainer Neumann with Gert Langhammer as secretary, will be formally considered by GTB in May 2020. However, in the meantime the task force will meet with the objective of starting to develop a GTB consensus for the details of the test methods and the rating system.
Outcome of the other GTB Working Group Meetings in Den Haag
GTB Vehicle Level Laboratory Test Procedure Task Force
The progress of the task force, launched in February 2019, was summarised by its secretary, Thomas Reiners. The task force has developed a proposal for the methodology of a laboratory test of the ADB system installed onto a vehicle, based upon real recorded data of road scenes from the camera and other sensors. The next task is to develop a written test method and then to decide how this can be validated. The objective is to have a first draft available by the end of 2020.
GTB will consider the draft terms of reference of the taskforce in May 2020 and will also confirm the task force officers. Geoff Draper is currently acting as chairman but has invited a volunteer, preferably from a vehicle manufacturer, to take over the chair and work with Thomas Reiners as secretary.
GTB Task Force ADAS Sensors
This is a new task force that will investigate the
requirements for installing ADAS sensors inside the lighting devices where a
controlled operating environment can be assured. The study will include the
requirements for cleaning systems to ensure the required performance of the
sensors is maintained.
The terms of reference and officers of this task force will be confirmed at the GTB meeting in May 2020 but initially, Eric Blusseau of Valeo has volunteered to take the lead.
GTB SVP Working Group
The SVP group reviewed the outcome of the research
programmes sponsored by the GTB Strategy Group and received a presentation by
Dr Roth and Mr. Studeny of VW on their ideas for supporting drivers with the
help of road projections. These projections concern “optical lane assist”,
“optical crossing assist”, and “optical lane departure warning”.
Communication to other road users is improved with the help of ambient road
projections (direction indicator and hazard warning projections on the road,
door opening indication, park assist, etc). After the meeting a shuttle service
was organised to take all interested experts to a VW dealer in The Hague where
Dr Roth and Mr Studeny showed a car with prototype signalling lamps that were
able to project:
• Amber symbols for supporting the information given by direction indicators at all 4 edges of the car
• Shapes in white or red to the rear to indicate parking/de-parking situations to other road users and to support the driver with some additional information when driving rearwards.
VW are carrying out studies to demonstrate that such projections can help to increase traffic safety.
Other GTB Working Group Activities
Regarding the GTB Working Groups focussed on Installation, Front Lighting, Signal Lighting and Light Sources, the major priority is to complete the tasks associated with the delivery of Stage 2 simplification to GRE for its April 2020 session. This work is under the umbrella of the GRE SLR (Simplification of the Lighting Regulations) Informal group who are holding their 37th session in Brussels right now (2–5 March).
Future GTB Sessions
– 11-15 May 2020: GTB 129th session – Tallinn (Estonia)
– July 2020: GTB Intermediate WG Meeting session – Date and venue to be finalised
– 16-20 November 2020: GTB 130th session – Germany (venue to be finalised)
– February 2021: GTB Intermediate WG Meeting session – Date and venue to be finalised
– May 2021: GTB 131st session – Hungary
See the new GTB website at www.gtb-lighting.org